Protein synthesis is one of the most fundamental biological processes by which individual cells build their specific proteins. Within the process are involved both DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and different in their function ribonucleic acids (RNA). The process is initiated in the cell's nucleus, where specific enzymes unwind the needed section of DNA, which makes the DNA in this region accessible and a RNA copy can be made. This RNA molecule then moves from the nucleus to the cell cytoplasm, where the actual the process of protein synthesis take place.
Protein synthesis is an essential biological process during which living cells build proteins. The foundation of life is based on the proper functioning on cellular level (and further, on tissue, organ, organism and ecosystem levels, of course!). Each cell function is determined by a specific protein or group of proteins. Even the protein synthesis process alone needs specific proteins (enzymes and structural proteins part of the ribosomes) in order to be executed and completed successfully.
The protein synthesis takes place in the cytoplasm. However, you should note that there is small difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in terms of actual protein synthesis localization in the cell. As you know the machinery responsible for the protein synthesis is the ribosome. While the proper functioning of the sub-units together with the constant supply of amino acid residues via the tRNAs, determine the protein chain elongation and finally the termination of the protein synthesis.
The process of protein synthesis translates the codons of the mRNA into the 20-symbol code of amino acids that build the polypeptide chain of the proteins. There are almost no significant differences in the protein synthesis steps in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, there is one major distinction between the structure of the mRNAs - prokaryotes often have several coding regions (polycistronic mRNA), while the eukaryotic mRNA has only one coding region (monocistronic mRNA). The main protein synthesis steps are Initiation, Elongation and Termination. In most of the aspects, the process in eukaryotes follow the same simple protein synthesis steps as in prokaryotes. However there are specific differences that could be outlined. For example, one important difference is that in prokaryotic cells the process of translation starts before transcription is completed.
The first step of protein synthesis is called transcription. The instructions encoded in the DNA of the genes are transcribed into the nucleotide sequence code of a ribonucleic acid (RNA). Because this RNA molecule carries the protein synthesis instructions, or in other words a "message", from the genes to the ribosomes, it is called messenger RNA (abbreviated as mRNA).
The second step of protein synthesis is mRNA Translation (or just Translation). During the transcription, the information encoded in the DNA is copied to a messenger RNA sequence (mRNA), which then can move through the nucleus membrane and can reach the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. The production of proteins happens during the second step of protein synthesis process - the Translation.